This error becomes increasingly evident as authors turn to recent events at the end of their book. They accuse Russia and the Islamic State (IS) of plunging the world into the dark days of unbridled conquest. They are not wrong, but their field of vision is incomplete. America`s invasion of Iraq is briefly discussed in the book, and when it appears, Hathaway and Shapiro mention it not to illustrate an illegal war destructive of norms, but to dramatize the happy story that the George W. Bush administration, despite its unilateral view, was then forced to cancel its steel tariffs, taking into account the rules of the World Trade Organisation. They also ignore the 17-year war in Afghanistan and the US-backed violence in Yemen and beyond. They once mention the term «drone» when describing the prosecution`s arduous opening statement at the Nuremberg trials. For Hathaway and Shapiro, and for many other so-called liberal internationalists, the United States is not really seen as a warmonger and a lawbreaker. America maintains and upholds peace and justice, no matter if it doesn`t. This explains why his book resonated with so many liberals during the Trump years.
Since the presidential election, U.S. foreign policy experts have come together to protect what they have called the «liberal international order,» which they seem to believe was uniformly maintained by postwar presidents before Trump and which Trump rejects altogether. Hathaway and Shapiro share this conservation project, although they clearly date its beginnings to 1928. So far, the examiners have given their agreement. «Given the state of the world,» writes Oxford historian Margaret MacMillan, «the internationalists arrived at the right time.» Isabel Hull, the great historian of Imperial Germany, also praises her «contemporary and necessary advocacy for international law and for the value of the institutions from which we have all benefited but which we have failed to explain or defend in recent decades.» Hull is so desperate to preserve the old order that he absolves Hathaway and Shapiro of the very myopia — an unconditional belief in America`s highest role in the world — that threatens them today. «They can be forgiven,» she admits, «for exaggerating the role of the United States in banning war and training institutions that support the hope of international cooperation.» The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement to ban war, which was signed on September 27. It was signed in August 1928. The pact, sometimes referred to as the Paris Pact for the city in which it was signed, was one of many international efforts to prevent another world war, but it had little impact on stopping the emerging militarism of the 1930s or preventing World War II.
One of the original «realists,» Schmitt is the Bête Noire of the internationalists, and Hathaway and Shapiro attack not only his ideas, but also his personal actions, recounting his well-known machinations at the University of Berlin, where he defended the legality of the extrajudicial murders of the Nazis, and his interrogation in Nuremberg, where he escaped prosecution, but not to shame. But the authors try to have both in their dispute with Schmitt. Sometimes they recognize the validity of his claim that banning war will only redirect violence, not reduce it. «The ostracism of war has not brought peace to the world,» they admit towards the end. «By choosing anarchy, we have exchanged a world of interstate war for an internal war» in which weak states are no longer conquered, even if they cannot maintain internal order. But for the most part, Hathaway and Shapiro claim to reject Schmitt at all levels and applaud the pact to get rid of the real war. «The constraint of war was over,» they enthused. «The era of global cooperation had begun.» Hathaway and Shapiro confuse norms with practices and celebrate an achievement they recognize elsewhere as existing only in name.
In this way, your report is not so much nuanced as schizophrenic. In practice, the Kellogg-Briand Pact has not lived up to its main objectives, but it has probably had some successes. It did not end the war, nor stopped the rise of militarism, and was unable to maintain international peace in the years that followed. His legacy remains a statement of idealism expressed by supporters of peace in the interwar period.  In addition, it erased the legal distinction between war and peace because, after renouncing the use of war, the signatories began to fight wars without explaining them, as with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935, the Spanish Civil War in 1936, the Soviet invasion of Finland in 1939 and the German and Soviet invasions of Poland.  At the time Samantha Power wanted to stop the genocide, she wrote out of outrage at the state of the world and out of a belief that the United States could make things better. .